Effects of the "Bright Start" program in kindergarten on transfer and academic achievement.
Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple regressions identified which of the 3 other language skills explained unique variance in each of the 4 language skill outcomes and provided additional evidence that language is not a single skill. Individuals' ipsative scores (amount that the standard score for age on each language measure deviated from individual's mean for all 4 measures) showed that 25% to 30% of individuals showed relative strengths or weaknesses (±1 SD) in specific language skills, but only 7% were stable across Grades 3 and 5. Findings are discussed in reference to (a) theoretical implications for idea comprehension and expression via language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand; and (b) educational applications of observed developmental and individual differences for general, special, and gifted education.
Tzuriel, D., Kaniel, S., Haywood, C.H., & Kanner, E. (1999).
Effects of the "Bright Start" program in kindergarten on transfer and academic achievement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 14 (1), 111-141.
Last Updated Date : 01/01/2012