adolescent

Confidence in the iron dome missile defense system combined with a sense of resilience reduced the effect of exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after missile attacks

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Hoffman, Y., Cohen-Fridel, S.,  Bodner, E., Grossman, E., & Shrira, A. (2016)

Confidence in the iron dome missile defense system combined with a sense of resilience reduced the effect of exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after missile attacks. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 77(3), 407-408

Suicidal ideation and behaviors within the school context: Perceived teacher, peer and parental support

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School-related factors have been found to be associated with adolescents’ suicidal ideation and behaviors, including teacher and peer support. Research has tended to ignore the nested nature of school-related data, which may be critical in this context. The current study implemented a multi-level approach on data from the 2013–14 Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC-WHO) Israeli survey among high school children (N = 4241; 56% female). Participants completed measures of teacher-, peer-, and parental-support (coded reversely from 1 = high to 5 = low), and suicidal ideation and behaviors in the last 12 months. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM), controlling for gender and age, revealed that classroom-level teachers’ support was significantly related to students’ suicidal ideation and behaviors (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.20–2.44; OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.04–1.86; respectively), whereas parental (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.40–1.75; OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30–1.55; respectively) and peer support (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.12–1.31; OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02–1.21; respectively) were significant at the individual-level. The school environment can play a significant role in reducing risk for suicidal ideation and behaviors. Findings can inform future research and practice in planning and implementing evidence-based intervention programs within schools.

Madjar, N., Walsh, S.D., & Harel-Fisch, Y. (2018)

Suicidal ideation and behaviors within the school context: Perceived teacher, peer and parental supportPsychiatry Research, 269, 185-190.  DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.08.045

Developmental patterns of adolescent spiritual health in six countries

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The spiritual health of adolescents is a topic of emerging contemporary importance. Limited numbers of international studies provide evidence about developmental patterns of this aspect of health during the adolescent years. Using multidimensional indicators of spiritual health that have been adapted for use within younger adolescent populations, we therefore: (1) describe aspects of the perceptions of the importance of spiritual health of adolescents by developmental stage and within genders; (2) conduct similar analyses across measures related to specific domains of adolescent spiritual health; (3) relate perceptions of spiritual health to self-perceived personal health status. Cross-sectional surveys were administered to adolescent populations in schoolsettings during 2013-2014. Participants (n=45,967) included eligible and consenting students aged 11-15 years in sampled schools from six European and North American countries. Our primary measures of spiritual health consisted of eight questions in four domains (perceived importance of connections to: self, others, nature, and the transcendent). Socio-demographic factors included age, gender, and country of origin. Self-perceived personal health status was assessed using a simple composite measure. Self-rated importance of spiritual health, both overall and within most questions and domains, declined as young people aged. This declining pattern persisted for both genders and in all countries, and was most notable for the domains of "connections with nature" and "connections with the transcendent". Girls consistently rated their perceptions of the importance of spiritual health higher than boys. Spiritual health and its domains related strongly and consistently with self-perceived personal health status. While limited by the 8-item measure of perceived spiritual health employed, study findings confirm developmental theories proposed from qualitative observation, provide foundational evidence for the planning and targetingof interventions centered on adolescent spiritual health practices, and direction for the study of spiritual health in a general population health survey context. 

Michaelson, V., Brooks, F., Jirásek, I., Inchley, J., Whitehead, R., King, N., Walsh, S., Davison, C.M., Mazur, J., Pickett, W., Davison, C., Freeman, J., Trothen, T., Morgan, A., Harel-Fisch, Y., Gobina, I., Pudule, I., Dzielska, A., Nałecz, H., Kolarcik, P. (2016)

Developmental patterns of adolescent spiritual health in six countriesSSM - Population Health, 2(1), 294-303. 

The Relationship Between Immigrant School Composition, Classmate Support and Involvement in Physical Fighting and Bullying among Adolescent Immigrants and Non-immigrants in 11 Countries

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Increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Contradictory findings regarding the relationship between immigrant school composition (the percentage of immigrant versus non-immigrant students in a school) and adolescent peer violence necessitate further consideration. The current study examined the relationship between immigrant school composition and peer violence, considering classmate support as a potential moderator among 51,636 adolescents (50.1 % female) from 11 countries. The findings showed that a higher percentage of immigrant adolescents in a school was related to higher levels of physical fighting and bullying perpetration for both immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents and lower levels of victimization for immigrants. In environments of low classmate support, the positive relationship between immigrant school composition and fighting was stronger for non-immigrants than in environments with high classmate support. In environments of low classmate support, the negative relationship between immigrant school composition and fighting and bullying victimization was stronger for immigrant adolescents than in environments with high classmate support. In general, the contribution of immigrant school composition was modest in comparison to the contribution of classmate support. The findings emphasize that it is not just the number of immigrants in a class per se, but rather the environment in the classroom which influences levels of peer violence. The results highlight a need for school intervention programs encouraging positive relations in schools with immigrant populations

Walsh, S.D., De Clercq, B., Molcho, M., Harel-Fisch, Y., Davison, C.M., Rich Madsen, K.,Stevens, G.W.J.M. (2016) 

The Relationship Between Immigrant School Composition, Classmate Support and Involvement in Physical Fighting and Bullying among Adolescent Immigrants and Non-immigrants in 11 Countries. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(1), 1-16

Trends and Socioeconomic Correlates of Adolescent Physical Fighting in 30 Countries

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: No recent international studies provide evidence about its prevalence, trends, or social determinants of physical fighting in adolescents. We studied cross-national epidemiologic trends over time in the occurrence of frequent physical fighting, demographic variations in reported trends, and national wealth and income inequality as correlates. 

METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were administered in school settings in 2002, 2006, and 2010. Participants (N = 493 874) included eligible and consenting students aged 11, 13, and 15 years in sampled schools from 30 mainly European and North American countries. Individual measures included engagement in frequent physical fighting, age, gender, participation in multiple risk behaviors, victimization by bullying, and family affluence. Contextual measures included national income inequality, absolute wealth and homicide rates. Temporal measure was survey cycle (year). 

RESULTS: Frequent physical fighting declined over time in 19 (63%) of 30 countries (from descriptive then multiple Poisson regression analyses). Contextual measures of absolute wealth (relative risk 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.93-0.99 per 1 SD increase in gross domestic product per capita) but not income inequality (relative risk 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.05 per 1 SD increase) related to lower levels of engagement in fighting. Other risk factors identified were male gender, younger age (11 years), multiple risk behaviors, victimization by bullying, and national homicide rates. 

CONCLUSIONS: Between 2002 and 2010, adolescent physical fighting declined in most countries. Specific groups of adolescents require targeted violence reduction programs. Possible determinants responsible for the observed declines are discussed.

Pickett, W.,  Molcho, M.,  Elgar, F.J., Brooks, F., de Looze, M., Rathmann, K., ter Bogt, T,F.M., Gabhainn, S.N., Sigmundova, D., de Matos, M.G., Craig, W., Walsh, S.D., Harel-Fisch, Y., Currie, C. (2013)

Trends and Socioeconomic Correlates of Adolescent Physical Fighting in 30 Countries. Pediatrics, 131 (1), E18-E26 

 

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